Zarf-fiil (bağ fiil, ulaç, gerundium grubu)
Converb (a.k.a. action adverb, adverbial participle, conjunctive participle, gerund, gerundive, verbal adverb)
Osman Hamdi Bey
Converb, action adverbs, typically carrying markers such as Turkish (‑ip, ‑erek, ‑ken, ‑esiye, ‑meden, ‑ince, ‑eli, ‑dikçe, ‑ir … ‑mez, ‑diğinde, ‑e … ‑e, ‑meksizin, ‑cesine, etc.). In Turkish, it refers to a large number of verb endings subject to vowel harmony and sometimes used in conjunction with postpositions. The alternative names include zarf‑fiil, bağ‑fiil, ulaç. or gerundium, which typically apply to a verbal form that functions in a sentence as an adverb. The Turkish coverb may also constitute part of a converbial (adverbial) clause.