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Naile Hanım Portresi (Portrait of Naile Hanım) by Osman Hamdi Bey

HYPOTAXIS (from Greek, hypo- “beneath,” and taxis “arrangement”) refers to connecting clause elements (words, phrases) or sentence elements (clauses) through SUBORDINATION, thus highlighting their UNEQUAL (unparallel) status. The elements may be connected with or without a subordinating conjunction. If the elements are linked with a SUBORDINATING CONJUNCTION, such style of linking is called SYNDETIC HYPOTAXIS (subordination with conjunction). There are no examples at the word level. The example at the clausal level: (EN) Then I understood that running meant dying. / (TR) Anladım ki onlardan kaçmak, ölmek demektir. If the elements are linked without a SUBORDINATING CONJUNCTION, such style of linking is called ASYNDETIC HYPOTAXIS (subordination without conjunction). The example at the word level: (EN) the big bad wolf / (TR) büyük kötü kurt. The examples at the clausal level: (EN) Should you change your mind, no one would blame you. / (TR) Fikrini değiştirirsen kimse seni suçlamaz. (EN) He said, “Go home!” / (TR) Bize, "Evinize git!" dedi. While HYPOTACTIC MODIFIERS cannot be separated by a comma (as comma between modifiers points to their parallel status), HYPOTACTIC (SUBORDINATED) CLAUSES in a COMPLEX SENTENCE are typically separated by a comma (more rarely, by a colon or a dash). There are only a few ASYNDETIC HYPOTACTIC constructions in English. In Turkish, however, ASYNDETIC HYPOTAXIS is the most common SUBORDINATION device.

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