• Galina Blankenship

Turkish Punctuation (Türkçede Noktalama İşaretleri): Period (Nokta) [.]

Updated: Feb 8

⌘Proofreader's Cheatsheet:

with examples from newspapers, scientific articles, literature, poetry…

Image depicting a typewriter, with Isaac Babel's quote: "No iron can pierce the heart with such force as a period put just at the right place."
Isaac Babel (1894–1940), Russian journalist, playwright, and short story writer


Primarily, periods serve the same purpose in Turkish as in English—to end a sentence. Moreover, just as in English, periods are used to indicate abbreviations, which are very common in Turkish. The common abbreviations are used for:

  • Academic Degrees/Titles:

Prof. (profesör)Ph.D. (professor)

Dr. (doktor)Dr. (doctor)

Prof. Dr. (profesör doktor)Ph.D./M.D.

Doç. (doçent) associate professor

Yrd. Doç. (yardımcı doçent)assistant professor

Arş. Gör. (araştırma görevlisi)Research Assistant/Associate/Fellow

Ecz. (Eczacı)pharmacist

Uz. (uzman)specialist

Öğr. Ü. (Öğretim Üyesi)lecturer

  • Military Ranks:

Alb. (Albay)colonel

Gnkur. (Genelkurmay)general staff

  • Job Titles:

Cum. Bşk. (Cumhurbaşkanı)president

Av. (Avukat)attorney

Hs. Uzm. (hesap uzmanı)accountant

  • Addresses:

Image of a punctuation mark - Period (Nokta)

T.C. (Türkiye Cumhuriyeti)Republic of Turkey

Cad. (caddesi)Ave. (avenue)

Mah. (mahalle)district

Sok. (sokak) str. (street)

  • Institution/Company Names:

A.Ş. (Anonim Şirketi)Inc. (Incorporated)

Ltd. (Limited)LLC/LTD

Tic. (Ticaret)trade

  • Languages:

Alm. (Almanca)German

İng. (İngilizce)English

Ar. (Arapça)Arabic

  • Disciplines:

ed. (edebiyat)literature

fiz. (fizik)physics

kim. (kimya)chemistry

anat. (anatomi)anatomy

  • Documents (misc.):

sf. (sıfat)adj. (adjective)

haz. (hazırlayan)prepared by

çev. (çeviren)translated by

vb. (ve benzeri)etc. (et cetera)

vs. (vesaire)etc. (et cetera)

vd. (ve diğerleri) et al.

s. (sayfa)page

bkz./bk. (bakınız)see

sn. (saniye)sec. (second)

sa. (saat)hour

ör. (örneğin) e.g. (for example)

For the updated abbreviations and other grammatical and orthographic rules of the Turkish language, please download the Turkish Language Association's Index of Abbreviations (Kısaltmalar Dizini) and the Language Society's List of Abbreviations (Kısaltmalar Dizelgesi).

Other uses of periods are distinctively Turkish. For example, periods are used for:

  • Ordinal numerals:

“5.” (beşinci)the fifth

“13.” (on üçüncü)the thirteenth

“24.” (yirmi döndürücü)the twenty-fourth

II. MehmetMehmed II (Mehmed the Conqueror)

XIV. LouisLouis XIV

XV. yüzyılthe 15th century

3. Cadde 3rd Avenue

21. Sokak21st Street

4. Levent 4th Levent

  • Dates:

09.04.1962 09.04.1962

06.9.1985 06.09.1985

29.X.1923 29.10.1923

  • Time (24-hour clock):

Tren 19.30’da Haydarpaşa’dan kalktı.

The train left at 7:30 PM from Haydarpaşa.

Toplantı 13.00’te başladı.

The meeting began at 1 PM.

☝Although Turkish language experts unequivocally agree that the correct time format is XX.XX and not XX:XX, the latter is commonly used throughout the web. Nonetheless, we should all strive to adhere to standards, if only for the sake of belonging.

  • Bibliographies:

Agâh Sırrı Levend, Türk Dilinde Gelişme ve Sadeleşme Evreleri, TDK Yayınları, Ankara 1960.

Agâh Sırrı Levend, Stages of Development and Simplification of the Turkish Language, TDK Publications, Ankara 1960.

  • Numbers:

125.816.742 = yüz yirmi beş milyon sekiz yüz on altı bin yedi yüz kırk iki

125,816,742 = one hundred twenty-five million eight hundred sixteen thousand seven hundred forty-two

1.550.000 1,550,000

49.750.812 49,750,812

326.197 326,197

5.674,08 5,674.08

  • In mathematics, in place of the multiplication sign:

4.5=20 4 x 5=20

12.6=72 12 x 6=72

  • Periods are used to format numbered bullet lists, clauses or articles in legal and other documents:

I. A. a.

II. B. b.

Previous (Turkish and English Punctuation) Next (Comma)